ASHRAE (American Society of Heating,
Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning):
"Ozone controls surface mold on packages and walls, and reduces scale
development and decay. The presence of ozone . . . . significantly reduces
the occurrence of mold."
Refrigeration Service Engineers Society (RSES):
"Ozone is one of the purest and most powerful oxidants and germicides
Purifies the Air
Ozone oxidizes airborne pollutants, then
reverts back to oxygen, transforming polluted air to pure and refreshened
Here is how the process works:
- Oxygen molecules (O1 and O2)
are converted to ozone (O3) by either a high-voltage electrical
charge (such as from lightning), or by ultraviolet light (such as from the
- One oxygen atom (O1) splits
off from the ozone molecule, and reacts with other particles when it comes
within range of a particle and/or pollutant. Ozone is highly reactive, so
it never fails to initiate this reaction with other particles.
- As the 2nd most powerful oxidant in
existance, the single oxygen atom proceeds to "oxidize" the particle it
reacts with. This means it burns the particle, which changes its physical
properties. As a result, the particle will no longer be toxic, and will no
longer be able to reproduce if it is biological. In other words, the
particle becomes completely harmless.
- When the single oxygen (O1)
molecule oxidizes the particle, it too is destroyed. This leaves behind
the O2 it split away from, or pure and clean oxygen.
Effectiveness at Low Levels
In studies conducted at the Academy of
Medical Sciences in Russia, Dr. Gubernskii and Dr. Dmitriev found that
0.005 ppm (parts per million) to 0.02 ppm of ozone added to normal indoor
air (0 ppm) increased animals' resistance to the cold, to
infection, to toxic substances, and to oxygen deprivation. A
general increase in the immune "biological potential" and the vital
capacity of the lungs was reported.
Dr. Gubernskii and Dr. Dmitriev also
performed tests using less than .01 ppm of ozone in an
air-conditioned office building, which revealed that "the
levels of oxygen in the blood increase relatively quickly and remain at
a high level for the duration of the experiment." They also stated that:
"Atmospheric ozone has a positive effect on animals and people. It is
important to note its positive effect on the breathing system, blood
composition, arterial pressure, immune system, general feeling of
well-being, and mental and physical work capability. The ozone-ion complex
is a necessary component of fresh air that gives it a curative effect."
This same study, featured in the Russian
journal Priroda, also reports a decrease in complaints of stuffiness (3.8
times fewer complaints).
Russian scientists performed a study to see
how effective ozone was at improving indoor air quality in schools.
Respiratory-related illnesses were drastically improved after the ozone
systems were installed. The ozone concentration produced by the systems were
0.015 ppm (parts per million).
In testing performed by two scientists by
the name of Elford and Van den Ende, it was found that ozone effectively
destroyed bacteria at 0.04 ppm.
Many publications have published studies
showing the effectiveness of lower concentrations ozone (0.01 to 0.03 ppm)
at removing odors and pollutants. Some of these include the Refrigeration
Service Engineers Society (RSES), U.S. Air Force technical publications,
and Manufacturing Chemist.
Surround Air ionizers produce an ozone
concentration of 0.02 ppm to 0.04 ppm.
Effectiveness against Mold
A 1999 study conducted at the University of
Minnesota found that both ozonated air and water inactivate mold, rendering
the mold cells harmless.
The Refrigeration Service Engineers Society
has reported that electric-arc welders exposed to ozone levels of 0.2 to 0.3
ppm (parts per million) for a decade showed no adverse effects. The Surround
Air Ionizers produce between 0.02 to 0.04 ppm of ozone.
Also, according to the 1961 Encyclopedia
of Chemical Technology, "During the 80-year history of the large scale
usage of ozone, there has never been a human death attributed to it." To
this day, there has still never been a single human death or incident of
harm attributed to ozone.
This despite the fact that ozone was
widely used in hospitals during the first half of the 20th century, and is
still widely used in European hospitals. In addition, millions of ozone air
purification systems are in use worldwide, both commercially and
By Contrast, well over a million
people are hospitalized, and well over 100,000 are killed every year due to
medication side effects, according to the FDA.
Ozone is completely safe and
effective when occurring within FDA and OSHA standards of 0.05 ppm
(parts per million). In healthy and clean outdoor environments, ozone
occurs between 0.02 ppm and 0.05 ppm. Ozone has not been found to be
harmful to the lungs until occurring at concentrations of 0.1 to 0.2 ppm.
However, it is very difficult (if not impossible) to adjust most ozone air
purifiers to produce anywhere close to this amount of ozone.
In addition, the smell of ozone will become
unpleasant and obnoxious well before reaching harmful levels, serving as a
built-in and self-policing safety mechanism. If this happens, you
know to make an adjustment (i.e. adjust setting of machine, increase air
flow, place in more open/larger area).
However, at proper levels (0.02 ppm to 0.05
ppm), it will have a pleasant and clean smell to it, reminiscent of
the smell outside after a lightening storm.